Chris's Blog

Deploying a PKI With Chef

Traditionally, rolling out an X.509-style PKI has been a lot of work. You’ve got to create the CA, generate all the necessary private keys and distribute them securely, create signed certificates and distribute those, and then do it all again when renewal time comes around. Often this is enough work that a simpler security model is used instead, like a shared secret.

With a modern configuration management system we ought to be able to do better than this. Our CM system can know what certificates are required where, and which CA should issue them. We’ve got an authenticated transport, and the ability for an operator to control the certificate issuing process from a central location.

This is the solution the ssl cookbook tries to provide for Chef-managed infrastructures: it allows recipes to specify the certificates required alongside the services which will use them, generates private keys right on the host, and manages the certificate issuing process via the Chef server and a separate command-line tool.

Using the ssl_certificate resource

To use the ssl cookbook, you’ll start by declaring as resources the certificates your infrastructure needs. Probably the most common will be a certificate for an https server - the standard “SSL certificate” that gives the resource its name:

A typical ssl_certificate resource (ssl_certificate1.rb)
ssl_certificate "" do
  ca "MyCA"
  key "/etc/ssl/"
  certificate "/etc/ssl/"
  type "server"
  bits 1024
  days 365

Here, we’re specifying a certificate whose Common Name is “”. The other parts of the certificate’s Distinguished Name are set as node attributes, and needn’t be specified here.

The CA whose signature is requested here is MyCA. This is a string which identifies your CA. It might identify an internal CA, or it might be an abbreviation which indicates an external CA you might use, but you need to choose an appropriate “short name” for your CA to use here. Later, we’ll use this identifier to find the CSR to sign.

The key and certificate locations are given here, which you’d need to also specify in your webserver configuration. The key is given restrictive 0600 permissions, and ownership defaults to root:root. The key itself is declared to be of type server, and of length 1024 bits.

A validity period of 365 days is requested for the certificate. This is a request, and need not be honoured when the CSR is signed, but it will be respected if the automatic signing tool is used.

The first time this resource is converged, the key will be generated and installed, and a temporary certificate signed by a temporary CA is also installed – this allows a webserver configured to use the key and certificate to start up successfully. Browsers connecting to the server will see a warning, indicating the correct certificate is not yet in place.

The Chef run also generates a CSR and PGP-encrypts the private key, then saves them both into node attributes, in the “CSR Outbox”. This contains the CSR, and the requested CA and validity period ready for the signing tool.

Signing certificates

The chef-ssl tool is provided as a Ruby gem, called chef-ssl-client, and is maintained in the cookbook’s git repository. This is a standalone command line tool, which handles the certificate issuing parts of the process, but which also provides for the creation of new CAs and the issuing of ad hoc certificates.

Often you’ll be signing certificates with your own CA for internal services, then deploying that CA to your clients. chef-ssl makes it easy to sign CSRs for these internal CAs:

$ chef-ssl autosign --ca-name MyCA --ca-path ./MyCA

You’ll be prompted for the CA key’s passphrase, and then a Chef search will be performed, looking for data in individual nodes’ outboxes. The search is constrained by the CA identifier you specified.

Each matching CSR is then presented in turn, and if you’re happy to issue the signed certificate, answering “yes” will do a number of things:

  • Create a certificate for the CSR
  • Sign the certificate with your CA
  • Upload the certificate as a Chef data bag item

The data bag item is named for the Common Name of the certificate, and contains all the information relating to the individual key and certificate. The PGP-encrypted key is stored for archive purposes, along with the CSR, and the certificate itself, the date and the signing CA’s certificate. The data bag item may be archived for backup of both the key and certificate.

Installing Certificates

On the next run after the certificate is issued and uploaded, Chef notes the existence of the relevant data bag item, downloads it and installs the certificate and the signing CA’s certificate.

Having installed the real certificate, Chef then removes the CSR from the outbox – it’s important here that only the Chef node ever updates the outbox, and only the chef-ssl script ever updates data bags. In this way, clobbering of data is avoided, and it’s clear which part of the system is responsible for each piece of data.

Notifications are sent when the new certificate is installed, which allows (for example) the relevant web server to be restarted and begin using the certificate.


This cookbook should allow you to concentrate on choosing the right security architecture for your systems, rather than avoiding a genuine PKI where it’s the right solution only because of the work involved.

The cookbook is available here:

where further documentation and examples are available. GitHub issues and pull requests are most welcome.